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Historique de la spéléologie au Québec


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La spéléologie québécoise a pris naissance au 19e siècle. À cette époque, l'intérêt pour les sciences allait croissant en Occident et les disciplines reliées aux sciences de la terre, telle la géologie, se développaient rapidement. C'est dans un contexte de recherche que les premiers spéléologues canadiens, tel G.D. Gibbs, ont publié les premiers textes sur le sujet.

Il est difficile de dénombrer les spéléologues dignes de ce nom avant 1940. Au cours de la décennie suivante, la spéléologie québécoise a pris son essor grâce à des précurseurs comme Léo Brassard. Les découvertes se sont multipliées et les articles sur la spéléologie se firent plus nombreux.
ancien logo sqs
C'est vers 1965 que la spéléologie québécoise s'est organisée. Les activités de loisir et de plein air se démocratisant, la spéléologie, réservée jusque-là aux scientifiques, devint aussi une activité de plein air. Les premiers clubs naquirent dans les milieux étudiants de Montréal et de Québec. En 1967 se crée un regroupement plus large, le Club spéléologique canadien. Ses buts étaient de découvrir, étudier et classifier les grottes, cavernes et autres cavités naturelles souterraines du Canada. L'année suivante, le C.S.C. fut rebaptisé Club spéléologique québécois. C'est cet organisme qui a donné naissance à la Société québécoise de spéléologie, le 29 juin 1970. La Société québécoise de spéléologie est donc l'aboutissement logique des efforts des époques précédentes.

jean lamarreFruit de l'action bénévole de la part de ses membres, la Société québécoise de spéléologie a été et demeure soutenue financièrement par le gouvernement québécois depuis 1971.

La Société québécoise de spéléologie regroupe maintenant plus de 4 000 membres de différentes catégories, ayant divers droits et obligations.

Les diverses catégories de membres sont: les troglophiles, les membres individuels, les membres familiaux, les membres propriétaires (qui possèdent une grotte et en autorisent l'accès), les clubs et les sections, de même que les membres honoraires.

En 1971 la SQS a créé sa commission d'enseignement: l'École québécoise de spéléologie (ÉQS). Elle a pour but de hausser le niveau de pratique des membres par l'apport de connaissances nouvelles. L'ÉQS offre des stages de formation de cadres (destinés à l'enseignement) et de perfectionnement divers. Elle est encore aujourd'hui la seule école de spéléologie au Canada et la plus ancienne en Amérique du Nord.

Source: «Découvrez le Québec souterrain» de Michel Beaupré et Daniel Caron, Québec Science Éditeur, 1986.

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