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La biospéléologie


Les cavernes sont des écosystèmes exceptionnels. Les échanges avec l'extérieur sont limités: elles sont un peu comme des îles, où on rencontre parfois une flore et une faune très différentes de ce qu'on trouve sur le «continent».

La flore sous terre est très limitée, puisque la lumière y pénètre peu. Les zones d'entrées sont habitées par des espèces à l'aise dans ces environnements particuliers, mais sous terre, les rares plantes rencontrées proviennent d'un transport accidentel de leurs germinations (cours d'eau, animaux ou spéléos). Elles durent peu, sont souvent blanches et étiolées. Les champignons et moisissures y ont un peu plus de chance.

Par contre, de nombreux animaux y trouvent un lieu de prédilection. C'est un abri naturel gratuit! On dit des animaux qui vivent dans les cavernes qu'ils sont cavernicoles, et on les classe ainsi:

Trogloxènes: les animaux qui s'y trouvent par hasard. Ils y vivent souvent avec difficulté, peuvent ou non s'y reproduire.

Troglophiles: ils s'y trouvent par choix. Ils peuvent cependant vivre à l'extérieur.

Troglobies: ils ne peuvent vivre ailleurs. Leur adaptation est complète.

Dans les grottes québécoises, on rencontre beaucoup de trogloxènes, quelques troglophiles et pas de troglobies. C'est peut-être dû au relatif jeune âge des grottes québécoises, la plupart de celles que nous connaissons étant d'origine post-glaciaire (mons de 10,000 ans); les troglobies seraient le résultat d'une évolution commencée il y a des dizaines de millions d'années!

Alors, que rencontre-t-on dans les grottes québécoises? En voici une liste non exhaustive:

- des mammifères: porc-épics, castors, souris, rats et... chauves-souris!

- des batraciens: salamandres, tritons, grenouilles, crapauds...

- des poissons: poissons courants d'eau douce: truites, carpes ou achigans de passage, les rivières souterraines ne l'étant souvent que localement...

- des crustacés: écrevisses, cloportes...

- des arachnides: opilions («faucheux»), araignée Meta ovalis (une troglophile très commune)...

- des insectes: très variés! Il y a plusieurs espèces de collemboles, des sauterelles, des maringouins, des mouches... et enfin de jolis papillons orangés, les Scoliopterix libatrix.

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