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Les obstacles du milieu souterrain


Les principaux obstacles sous terre sont l'obscurité, le froid et l'humidité. Un bon éclairage, une lampe de secours, une alimentation et des vêtements adéquats permettent de les surmonter.

Les éboulements sont rares: structures multi-millénaires, les cavernes tendent plutôt à se stabiliser. Si on doit traverser une zone d'éboulis, on en évalue la stabilité et dans le doute, on s'abstient. Si l'ensemble paraît stable, on progresse avec précaution, sans s'attarder.

Les chutes de pierre sont en général provoquées par les visiteurs des cavernes... On porte toujours un casque et on évite de séjourner à la base des puits.

L'argile glissante, les cailloux anguleux et instables nécessitent des chaussures et une technique de marche adéquate.

Les étroitures suscitent souvent l'appréhension. Si on évalue bien l'obstacle et les difficultés de retour, tout devrait bien aller. L'étroiture horizontale se passera aussi bien dans un sens que dans l'autre. Les pieds passent les premiers dans une étroiture descendante. Une étroiture verticale exigera plus de prudence, puisque le retour exigera plus d'effort que l'aller! Ici aussi, dans le doute on s'abstient.

L'eau peut être un obstacle important. Elle peut être froide, profonde, turbulente, contaminée. En hiver, on évite l'eau glaciale en pensant à la sortie à -25 degrés Celcius! Certaines grottes connaissent des crues, surtout à la fonte des neiges: la montée subite des eaux peut noyer certains passages. Cette situation est rare dans les grottes du Québec. Enfin certains passages sont noyés en permanence: les explorer exige des connaissances approfondies et un équipement très spécialisé.

Dans tous ces cas, la connaissance du milieu souterrain et l'utilisation du matériel et des techniques adaptées à la situation permettent de pratiquer la spéléologie en toute sécurité.

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